Symbols of the Province
Song of the Province
Map Ayutthaya
Geography and environment of Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province
  As there was the big crack of the earth crust at the end of Mesozoic Period and the
beginning of Cenozoic Period, some parts of the earth crust were sunk in the sea. Later, the
accumulation of sediment and the changes of sea level turned the area to be the land, that is,
the central region of Thailand to the Thai Bay. The central plain is the most accumulation of
sediment of Thailand because it includes the areas of Ping, Yom and Nan River including the upper
areas of the central region in Tak, Uttaradit, Pitsanulok, Petchabun, Pichit, Sukhothai and
  The other part is the area of the delta of Chao Phraya River occurred by the accumulation
of sediment from Chao Phraya River, Mae Klong River, Tha Cine River and Bang Pakong River,that is,
the areas of lower central region from Nakhonsawan to Thai Bay. The central plain is very abundant
and large. So, it is appropriate for the settlement of households, especially in the lower central areas
as many rivers are converged since the Buddhist century of 11 - 12 such as Uthong, Nakhon Chaisri,
Kubua, Lawoh, Uh Tapao, Sri Mahosop. Later, people migrated to the new rivers due to the
convenience of communication. Cities like Suphannabhumi, Praek, Sriracha, Ayutthya, Ratchaburi
and Lopburi were established. In addition, the central plains had a lot of importance in terms of the
administration. As a result, they became the economic and political center in Ayutthya Kingdom.
  Ayutthaya Kingdom, the center of administration in Buddhist Century 19, was located in
the central region where Chao Phraya River, Noi River, Lopburi River and Pasak River were converged
with Chao Phraya River and flew to Thai Bay. The location of Ayutthaya Kingdom was described in the
historical book, which was probably written in the era of Rattanakosin, as follows: "When mentioning
about Ayutthaya Kingdom, we usually thought of the city surrounded by the main rivers. Such rivers
were the main communication lines. Thus, the city was appropriate for the domestic and
international trading. It was also the economic, political and cultural center." At present,
Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province still has the importance as it was the capital of Thailand, which is
full of ancient sites, relics and cultural inheritance of ancestors.
Geography and Weather
  Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province is the large flooding plain called "Delta Plain" derived
from the long-term accumulation of stone, soil, sand and sediment. In addition,the most areas are
fields without any mountains or forests. The center of the province has been called "City Island"
(Koh Muang) as it is surrounded by rivers while the northern island is called "Floating Island"
(Koh Loy) because several rivers flow pass the city as follows:
  1. Chao Phraya River: The most important river of Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province in
terms of agriculture, communication and transportation. Chao Phraya River is originated when
Nan River and Ping River are converged at Pak Nam Poh, Nakhonsawan and flow along Uthaithanee,
Singburi, Angthong, the northwest of Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province passing Bangban District,
Phranakhonsriayutthaya District, Pang Pa In District and Bang Sai District. Then the river flows to
Pathumthanee, Nonthaburi, Bangkok metropolis and Samutprakarn. The river is totally 360 km long
while flowing pass Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province for 55 km.
  2. Pasak River: The river derived from Petchabun Mountain in Loei flows in the south
pass Petchabun, Lopburi, Saraburi, Phranakhonsriayutthaya in Ta Rua District, Nakhon Laung Distric
while being merged at the left side of Chao Phraya River at Wat Phananchoen.The river is totally
500 km long while flowing pass Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province for 52 km.
  3. Lopburi River: This river is separated from the left side of Chao Phraya River in Muang
District, Singburi. Then the river flows pass Lopburi and Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province in Ban
Praek District, Maharat District, Bangpahan District and Phranakhonsriayutthaya District before being
converged with Pasak River at Wat Tongpu in Phranakhonsriayutthaya District. The river is totally
85 km long while flowing pass Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province for 62.5 km.
  4. Noi River: The river is separated from the right side of Chao Phraya River in Muang
District, Chainat and flows pass Chainat, Singburi, Angthong and Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province in
Phakhai District and Seena District before being converged with Bangban Canal in Seekuk Village.
The river is merged again with Chao Phraya River in Ratchakhram Sub-district, Bang Sai District.
The river is totally 145 km long while flowing pass Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province for 30 km.
  These four rivers flow and converge as Chao Phraya River. Then, Chao Phraya River will
flow to Pathumthanee, Nonthaburi, Bangkok Metropolis and Thai Bay in Samutprakarn. In addition,
there are a lot of canals connecting all areas of the province such as Chao Ched Yaek Canal in
Seena District, Bangklee Canal separated from Noi River in Phakhai District, Phraya Banlue Canal
separated from Chao Phraya River in Bang Sai District and Rapeephat Canal in Tha Rua District
and Phashee District etc. During the flooding period, that is from eighth month (August) to the
eleventh or twelfth month (November). The flooding period is in the memory of the villagers as it is
recognized as the lifestyle of villagers on Chao Phraya River. The old usually tell that people will
prepare themselves for the flooding period in terms of the residence and boats as boats are the only
vehicle, which can bring them to other safe places. In fact, the rain of the eighth month usually
causes the flood.
  To measure the flood rate, the villagers will compare the quantity of water with the
flooded area of the house. For instance, if half of the house pole is flooded, the situation is normal.
If the outside of the house is flooded, the flood situation is not dangerous.However, if the balcony
is flooded, the situation is regarded as dangerous. In fact, the villagers are waiting for the flooding
period because their paddy rice field will be plentiful of plants and animals, especially small shrimps
and fishes. The flooding period takes usually 4-5 months whereas the water level will be highest in
the twelfth month (called as Nam Song"). Then the water level will be decreased. Such period is
called "Nam Fak Khai" as scum is floating on the water surface. At this time, villagers can catch a
lot of fish because the fish try to escape from the shallow water to the river.
  When the water is completely reduced, the harvest is coming. However, such abundance
in the flooding period has been lost after the construction of Chainat Dam or Chao Phraya Dam in
Chainat since 1957 with the purpose to develop the areas on the both banks of Chao Phraya River
and other minor rivers from Chaiant to sea areas so that water can be used in the farming in addition
to the natural rain. There is no more the flooding period. Although the farmers can do the
agriculture many times a year, the ecological system has been changed. At present,
Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province has the same weather as other provinces in the central region of
Thailand, that is,the northeastern wind in winter and the southwestern wind from Thai Bay. As a
result, the rainy season is very long. The highest temperature is 31°C while the lowest one is
24°C. The average rainfall of the province is approximately 1,342.7 mm while there are three main
seasons as follows:
  1. Rainy Season: The season begins in May or the beginning of June and will end in
October. From May or the beginning of June, the rain falls and will more frequently fall in August
or September. During these months, the rain falls most in Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province due
to the southwestern wind and depression storm from South Chinese Sea. In October, however,
the rain will falls less. The rainy season usually takes about 5 months.
  2. Winter: Winter begins in November and ends in January. From November, the season
will be changed from rainy season to winter as the southern wind is weak and replaced by the
northeastern wind. However, the temperature is not decreased so much because
Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province is located at the end of northeastern wind and near the Thai Bay.
Thus, the warmness from sea will warm the temperature automatically. The winter usually takes
3 months.
  3. Summer: This season begins in February and ends in April. From February,as the
northeastern wind is weaker, the weather will be hot and completely hot in April due to the
radiation of the sun and the high pressure covering from South Chinese Sea and Pacific Ocean,
which is the origin of the southeastern wind blowing to the Thai Bay. However,
Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province is not very hot as there are many rivers and canals. The summer
takes usually 4 months.
Land Communications
  Train: The first land communication from Bangkok to Ayutthaya was train constructed
according to the kindness of King Rama V. The first train line, that is, from Bangkok to Ayuthaya,
with 72 km length was in service from 1896. At present, two train lines passing
Phranakhonsriayutthaya Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province are the north and northeastern lines
traveling in Bang Pa In District and separated in Phashee District at  "Ban Phashee Junction Station"
The north line provides 18 trains per day. According to the study of the National Economic and
Social Office, Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province was proposed to be the connection point of the
region. It should also serves as the goods and passenger center to satisfy the policy of regiona
development, decrease of traffic jam in Bangkok and enhance the importance of train
communication. Today, there are the main train communication development projects as follows:
  1. The Parallel Train Project of the State Railway of Thailand establishes 3 phases of
the transportation as follows:
  - Rangsit Station  - Ban Phashee Junction
  - Ban Phashee Junction  - Lopburi Station
  - Ban Phashee Junction  - Bab Krabao Kaengkoy Station
  2. The project of high speed trains from Bangkok to the overall regions of Thailand
  Car: The car line of Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province was established in the reign
of King Rama V as he reformed the administration system. The county of Krung Kao was established
whereas the roads were constructed around the province to connect the government agencies.
Later, after the administration change in 1932, people are allowed to settle in the city island. Thus
roads and bridges across Pasak River, that is, Preedithamrong Bridge, were constructed to connect
the city island with the outside areas. The roads were constructed further to Phaholyotin (National
Highway No. 1) between Ayutthay - Wang Noi - Bangkok in the length of 80 km. Since then,
Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province has opened the lines to connect with the external areas. Asia Road
was constructed (National Highway No. 32) through Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province making the
communication between Ayutthaya - Bangkok more convenient with the length of 75 km. At present,
the bridge across Pasak River, namely, King Nareesuan the Great Bridge, was also constructed,
to be parallel with Preedithamrong Bridge.
  At present, the transportation of Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province is very convenient and
rapid in accordance with the policy of industrial areas. The land vehicle transportation development
project can be summarized as follows:
  1. The road expansion project of Somdej Road to the Royal Folk Arts and Crafts of
Bang Sai. The traffic lanes will be expanded from 2 to 10 lanes to support the vehicles at
Chaengwattana, Bang Phun - Bang Sai converged with the external ring road.
  2. The improvement project of Pathumthanee - Seena Road, that is, to improve and
expand the traffic areas.
  3. The project of external ring road (Special Highway No. 37) in the west across
Bang Sai District and Bang Pa In District.
  4. The project of the Expressway & Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand to establish the
express way of Pakkred - Bang Pa In, Bang Pa In - Pamok and Bangpahan - Ban Na - Phan Thong.
  The communication development project on Phranakhonsriayutthaya Province may
inevitably affect the lifestyle of people in Ayutthaya because apart from the transportation, modern
culture and society will be brought in the province. So, people have to adapt themselves smartly to
handle with the changes efficiently and in time.
สงวนลิขสิทธิ์ กลุ่มงานข้อมูลสารสนเทศและการสื่อสาร สำนักงานจังหวัดพระนครศรีอยุธยา โทร. 0-3533-5665 มท.10429